Association between Subjective Happiness and Periodontal Disease in Patients Visiting at a Tertiary Care Centre of Central Nepal


Chronic periodontitis
oral health
subjective happiness scale


Introduction: Happiness has been considered as a colloquial term for subjective well-being. There is a causal relationships and factors contributing to happiness achievement and satisfaction. One of the major factors is oral health in which periodontitis plays a major role.

Objective: To explore the association between subjective happiness and periodontal disease.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology from August 2018 to June 2019 after obtaining ethical clearance from the institutional review committee (IRC). Where 103 patients with chronic periodontitis according to the 1999 classification system were recruited by convenient sampling methods and were asked to fill out the questionnaire of subjective happiness scale given by Lyubomirsky. This scale was compared on the basis of periodontitis severity. Data were collected and entered into Microsoft Excel and statistical analysis was done using SPSS v.20. Data were represented as mean and standard deviations and the association between happiness and periodontitis was determined using Chi-square test.

Results: Out of 103 patients the mean subjective happiness score was found to be 18.78±1.692. Similarly, there was no significant association between happiness scale and periodontitis in the present study (P value = 0.821).

Conclusions: There is evidence of the relationship between subjective happiness and periodontitis. The findings of this study revealed a new perspective on periodontitis, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with periodontitis.



Listl S, Galloway J, Mossey PA, Marcenes W. Global economic impact of dental diseases. J Dent Res. 2015;94(10):1355-61.
Helal O, Göstemeyer G, Krois J, Fawzy El Sayed K, Graetz C, Schwendicke F. Predictors for tooth loss in periodontitis patients: Systematic review and meta‐analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2019;46(7):699-712.
Kalvans E. Problem of phenomenon of happiness in perspective of today's positive psychology. Adv Res Sci Areas. 2012;1:877-883.
Lyubomirsky S, Lepper HS. A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Soc Indic Res. 1999;46:137-55.
Kaipa S, Paul KK, Satpathy A, Epari V. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale. Indian J Dent Res. 2017;28(6):604-8.
Lee JY, Watt RG, Williams DM, Giannobile WV. A new definition for oral health: implications for clinical practice, policy, and research. J Dent Res. 2017;96(2):125-7.
Calvert M, Blazeby J, Altman DG, Revicki DA, Moher D, Brundage MD. Reporting of patient-reported outcomes in randomized trials: the CONSORT PRO extension. JAMA. 2013;309(8):814-22.
Simões RC, Goettems ML, Schuch HS, Torriani DD, Demarco FF. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life of 8-12 years old school children in Southern Brazil. Braz Dent J. 2017;28:105-12.
Tuchtenhagen S, Ortiz FR, Ardenghi TM, Antunes JL. Oral health and happiness in adolescents: A cohort study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2021;49(2):176-85.
Burton NW, Pakenham KI, Brown WJ. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the ready program. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(427):1-9.
Dumitrescu AL, Kawamura M, Dogaru BC, Dogaru CD. Relation of achievement motives, satisfaction with life, happiness and oral health in Romanian university students. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2010;8(1):15-22.
Kawashima M, Uchino M, Yokoi N, Uchino Y, Dogru M, Komuro A et al. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study. PloS One. 2015;10(4):1-11.
Sousa LM, Vieira CM, Severino SS, Pozo-Rosado JL, José HM. Validation of the subjective happiness scale in people with chronic kidney disease. Enfermería Glob. 2017;16(3):60-70.
Honkala S, Honkala E, Al‐Sahli N. Do life‐or school‐satisfaction and self‐esteem indicators explain the oral hygiene habits of schoolchildren? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35(5):337-47.
Sun L, Wong HM, McGrath CP. The factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life in 12-year-old children: baseline study of a longitudinal research. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15(1):1-4.
da Rosa GN, Del Fabro JP, Tomazoni F, Tuchtenhagen S, Alves LS, Ardenghi TM. Association of malocclusion, happiness, and oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) in schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent. 2016;76(2):85-90.
Tuchtenhagen S, Bresolin CR, Tomazoni F, da Rosa GN, Del Fabro JP, Mendes FM, Antunes JL, Ardenghi TM. The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren’s happiness. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15(1):1-8.
Barbosa TD, Gavião MB, Leme MS, Castelo PM. Oral Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Preadolescents with Caries, Malocclusions or Temporomandibular Disorders. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2016;14(5):389-.
Borzabadi-Farahani A. An insight into four orthodontic treatment need indices. Prog Orthod. 2011;12(2):132-42.