Introduction: Attached gingiva aids in increased resistance to external injury and contribute in stabilisation of gingival margin against frictional forces as well as dissipates physiological forces exerted by the muscular fibers of the alveolar mucosa on gingival tissues.
Objective: To assess width of attached gingiva in adults and correlate with oral hygiene maintenance and gingival inflammation.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients aged 20-40 years visiting dental OPD with healthy periodontium. Plaque index (PI) and Gingival index (GI) were recorded. Mucogingival junction was determined by visual and functional method. Keratinised gingiva width (KGW) and probing pocket depth (PPD) was recorded and attached gingiva width (AGW) was calculated as (KGW–PPD).
Results: Total 85 patients (43 males and 42 females) enrolled in this study. Among total, 48.23% had AGW<1 mm. AGW <1 mm most commonly was found in mandibular first premolar, highest mean AGW was found in maxillary incisors. The mean GI and PI values for AGW<1 mm were found to be higher than those for AGW≥ 1 mm. However, result did not show any significant relation between AGW and severity of gingival inflammation (P value 0.608) and plaque control (P value 0.297).
Conclusion: The correlation between attached gingiva width and severity of gingival inflammation and plaque index was not significant statistically. However, the mean gingival index and plaque index score were higher for the attached gingiva width less than 1 mm.
Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA. Carranza's Clinical Peri-odontology. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015.
Ainamo J, Talari A. The increase with age of the width of attached gingiva. J Per-iodontol Res. 1976;11(4):182-8.
Hall WB. Can attached gingiva be increased nonsurgically? Quintessence Int. 1982;13(4):455-62.
Guglielmoni P, Promsudthi A, Tatakis DN, Trombelli L. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility in keratinized tissue width assessment with 3 methods for mu-cogingival junction determination. J Periodontol. 2001;72(2):134-9.
Friedman MT, Barber PM, Mordan NJ, Newman HN. The “Plaque Free Zone” in health and disease: A scanning electron microscope study. J Periodontol. 1992;63(11):890-6.
Paturu DB, Tanguturi SC, Chava VK, Nagarakanti S. Evaluation of prevalence and predisposing factors of gingival recession in non-medical professional stu-dents in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent. 2016;14(2):144-9.
Löe H. The gingival index, the plaque index and the retention index systems. J Periodontol. 1967;38(6):610-6.
Wennström JL. Lack of association between width of attached gingiva and devel-opment of soft tissue recession: A 5 years longitudinal study. J Clin Periodontol. 1987;14(3):181-4.
Stetler KJ, Bissada NF. Significance of the width of keratinized gingiva on the periodontal status of teeth with submarginal restorations. J Periodontol. 1987;58(10):696-700.
Kolte R, Kolte A, Mahajan A. Assessment of gingival thickness with regards to age, gender and arch location. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2014;18:478-81.
Ainamo A. Influence of age on the location of the maxillary mucogingival junc-tion. J Periodontal Res. 1978;13(3):189-93.
Ainamo A, Ainamo J. The width of attached gingiva on supraerupted teeth. J Per-iodontal Res. 1978;13(3):194-8.
Bowers GM. A study of the width of attached gingiva. J Periodontol. 1963;34(3):201-9.
Fasske E, Morgenroth K. Comparative stomatoscopic and histochemical studies of the marginal gingiva in man. Parodontologie. 1958;12:151-60.
Bhatia G, Kumar A, Khatri M, Bansal M, Saxena S. Assessment of the width of attached gingiva using different methods in various age groups: A clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2015;19(2):199-202.
Jacob S, Zade RM. Width of attached gingiva in an Indian population: A descrip-tive study. Bangladesh J Med Sci. 2009;8(3):1-4.
Alhajj WA. Gingival phenotypes and their relation to age, gender and other risk factors. BMC Oral Health. 2020 Dec;20(1):1-8.
De Rouck T, Eghbali R, Collys K, De Bruyn H, Cosyn J. The gingival biotype re-visited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva. J Clin Periodontol. 2009 May;36(5):428-33.
Adesola UK, Okhiabigie AP, Adeola A, Omowumni P, Ayodeji TO. Evaluation of the attached gingiva width and sulcus depth in an adult Nigerian population - A pilot study. J Intl Acad Periodontol. 2018;20(3):78-85.
Lang NP, Loe H. The relationship between the width of keratinized gingiva and gingival health. J Periodontol. 1972;43(10):623-7.
Miyasato M, Crigger M, Egelberg J. Gingival condition in areas of minimal and appreciable width of keratinized gingival. J Clin Periodontol. 1977;4(3):200-9.
Padmini H, Raja KK, Hoe ZY, Teh YJ, Ting CJ. Correlation of width of attached gingiva, depth of the vestibule on gingival health and oral hygiene maintenance in Malaysian young adults. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2018;12(11):39-44.
Wennström JL, Lindhe J, Sinclair F, Thilander B. Some periodontal tissue reac-tions to orthodontic tooth movement in monkeys. J Clin Periodontol. 1987;14(3):121-9.
Tenenbaum H. A clinical study comparing the width of attached gingiva and the prevalence of gingival recessions. J Clin Periodontol. 1982;9:86-92.
Kennedy JE, Bird WC, Palcanis KG and Dorfman HS. A longitudinal evaluation of varying widths of attached gingiva. J Clin Periodontol. 1985;12:667-75.